Paediatrics: Diseases, Diagnosis & Treatment | Narayana Health


Our experienced team of Paediatricians caters to the Medical and Surgical Needs of Newborns, Toddlers, Teenagers and Adolescents. Our team of Doctors are efficient to Manage Emergencies and Intensive Care needs among Children.

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Paediatric is a branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases, and medical professionals who use the knowledge of Paediatrics to diagnose an infant, children and young people’s illness is known as Paediatrician. Paediatricians are doctors who diagnose and manage the physical and as well as the mental health of your child.

Why do you need a Paediatrician?

Family medicine doctors might treat your child, but they tend to look after the health of your kids and grown-ups alike. While adults can express their pain and symptoms, a young child can't do so. Paediatricians in child hospitals are trained professionals who can diagnose and treat childhood illnesses, from minor health problems to serious diseases. It’s imperative that you only choose the best Paediatricians for your child. They're the first person to call whenever your child is sick. Paediatrics are of four categories:

General Paediatrics - They treat children from birth to the age of 16. Most paediatricians have this generalist role.

Neonatology - This branch of Paediatrics specialises in looking after newly born babies. Newborns and premature babies in an intensive care unit (ICU) or those with problems at birth are treated by a paediatrician who is trained in neanatology.

Community Paediatrics - They are based in the community and look after children with developmental, social or behavioural problems and physical disability.

Paediatric Cardiology - These Paediatricians diagnose and treat children with cardiac (heart) conditions.

What Does Your Paediatrician Do?

A Paediatrician sees your child many times from birth to age 2 and once a year from ages 2 to 5 years. A Paediatrician takes care of your child by:

  • Giving vaccinations;
  • Making sure the child has proportional growth, behaviour, and skills as per their age;
  • Diagnosing and treating your child's infections, injuries, illnesses, or other health problems;
  • Performing physical exams to diagnose a health condition;
  • Providing information about your child's nutrition & fitness needs, health and safety;
  • Informing about their growth and development;
  • Referring you to specialists in case of expert care need.

Why Narayana Health for Pediatricians?

The Department of Paediatrics at Narayana Health has contributed outstandingly in the field of Paediatric health care across the globe. Narayana Health is renowned for excellence in the diagnostics and management of diseases in children from neonates to adolescents in a child-friendly environment.

Our expertise in Paediatric Cardiology and Paediatric Cardio Surgery has enabled us to become a world-class referral centre. Our Hospitals are among the best children’s hospital in India. The paediatrics department at NH offers treatment in specialities —


A Neonatologist is trained specifically to handle the most complex and high-risk situations. A premature baby or a newborn with serious illness, injury, or birth defect, are treated by a neonatologist at the time of delivery. Neonatologists ensure that critically ill newborns receive the proper nutrition for healing and growth. They stabilise and treat newborns with any life threatening medical problems. They also concurrently consult with obstetricians, paediatricians, and family physicians about conditions affecting newborn infants.

Neonatologists at Narayana Health have extensive training and experience and are backed by qualified medical staff and modern medical facilities including Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) which help them provide comprehensive care for infants.


Paediatric cardiologists specialise in diagnosing and treating heart problems such as Congenital heart disease and Arrhythmias in children. For children who might need heart surgery, pediatric cardiologists work closely with pediatric heart surgeons to determine the best treatments and interventions. Common focus areas while diagnosis for a Paediatric cardiologist include:

  • Advanced imaging methods such as MRI, CT, and echocardiography, diagnosis of congenital heart disease and acquired heart disease.
  • Heart catheterization procedures and interventions
  • The heart’s electrical system (Electrophysiology or EP)
  • Care of children in the cardiac ICU

Some of the conditions that the paediatric surgeons at Narayana Health treat include:

Appendicitis: The infected or inflamed appendix is removed through minimally invasive surgery and laparoscopy.

Cancer: The expert paediatric surgeons conduct surgical procedures for cancers, such as hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms’ tumour, etc.

Biliary atresia: This condition is diagnosed through an ultrasound, liver biopsy and nuclear medicine. Surgery is then performed to reconstruct the bile ducts and reattach them to the liver.

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: This is a congenital condition that results in abnormal development of the lung. During pregnancy, expecting mothers are closely observed, and the abnormal lung tissue is removed after birth.

Gallbladder problems: Traditional or minimally invasive surgery may be followed to treat infections in the gallbladder.

Tracheoesophageal fistula and Oesophageal atresia: In these conditions, the trachea and oesophagus are not formed correctly during the developmental stages of the baby. It is treated by closing the fistula and reconnecting the tubes to the organs after the baby’s birth.

Gastroesophageal reflux: It is a condition in which the food and digestive juices travel up the oesophagus. To treat this, the area at the end of the oesophagus is tightened, enabling the food to travel into the stomach but not back up the oesophagus.

Hirschsprung’s disease: This condition blocks a child’s ability to have a bowel movement. For treatment, the part of the colon that has enlarged is removed surgically to facilitate bowel movement.

Spleen disorders: Problems with spleen can result from injury or blood disorders. Splenectomy may be performed to remove the spleen only if it is medically necessary.

The Child Guidance Clinic, where children below the age of 16 years with neurological and psychological problems are provided specialised treatment by a multidisciplinary team consisting of neurologists, psychiatrists and psychologists. The child speciality clinic also provides training and guidance to caretakers.

Key Features:

  • Level IV Neonatal Intensive Care unit for high-risk new-borns
  • One of the Largest dedicated Paediatric Liver and Renal Transplant programme in India.
  • One of the Largest Dedicated Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU).
  • One of the Largest specialised Paediatric units for heart ailments in India.
  • One of the Largest Paediatric Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant programme in India.

Paediatrics FAQ's

What does a Paediatrician do?

Paediatrics is a branch of medicine that includes medical care for infants, toddlers, and children. Paediatricians provide medical care for children who suffer from acute or chronic illnesses, and they also provide preventive health services for healthy toddlers. A Paediatrician also manages the mental, emotional, and physical wellbeing of the child, and they ensure the child meets all the appropriate growth and developmental milestones.

What do Paediatricians treat?

A Paediatrician is a doctor who oversees the health of a child; this is inclusive of physical and mental well being. They’re trained to diagnose any illness that your child may have, from minor diseases to serious ones. They will perform checkups by doing physical exams, giving the necessary child vaccinations, making sure the child meets the milestones in behaviour, growth, and skills, diagnosing and treating any infections your child may catch, and answering any questions you may have about your child’s health, safety and nutrition.

What procedures do Paediatricians perform?

Paediatricians perform various medical procedures that aim to reduce infant and child mortality rates, promote a healthy lifestyle, control the spread of infectious diseases, and also help children manage chronic illnesses. They treat various issues that stem from injuries, infection, genetic conditions, cancer, and organ dysfunctions. Paediatricians are also involved in managing the child’s quality of life and long-term survival. This also includes diagnosing mental illnesses like social stress, depression, and anxiety.

Paediatrics consists of various sub-specialities like:

  • Paediatric cardiology
  • Critical medicine
  • Gastroenterology
  • Nephrology
  • Neonatal medicine

When should I pick a Paediatrician for my newborn?

The smart time to pick a Paediatrician for your baby is before it’s born; this means you need to start scoping out doctors during your pregnancy period, preferably, during the 28-week or 34-week period. It’s important that you meet a doctor who you respect and get along with because you will be overwhelmed with the duties that come with a newborn, and the additional stress of finding a doctor will aggravate it. Babies who have the same doctor for the first six months are more likely to receive important health tests before they turn two, this is useful because your doctor will know the immunization dates and the baby will be comfortable with them as well.

What questions should I ask a new Paediatrician?

If you plan ahead and visit your Paediatrician, then you will have a productive appointment. This will include going in with the right set of questions that will help you take care of your child better. Some of the vital questions you can always ask them are:

  • How much can I feed my newborn?
  • How do I know that my baby is getting enough Vitamin D?
  • If they can recommend a lactation consultant
  • How to ensure that the baby is sleeping safely?
  • Does my newborn have normal sleeping patterns?
  • How to make the vaccine shots easier on the baby?
  • How to care for the baby’s umbilical cord?
  • The pros and cons of circumcision
  • How should you bathe the baby?

    What can I expect at my first Paediatrician appointment?

    When you and the baby visit the Paediatrician for the first time, here are some of the checkups you can expect from your appointment:

    • Neck and collarbone check- Checking if there are any fractures or injuries, this is more for infants and newborns.
    • Head check- The doctor checks the growth of the head and ensures that the skull is developing at a normal rate
    • Hip check- The doctor looks for any irregularities by rolling the hips. This allows them to identify if there is any hip displacement or malformation. If it’s caught early, it can be fixed.
    • Reflex check- The doctor startles the baby, to check their involuntary responses and to see if they are developing normally.