Robotic Surgery consists of using a robotic surgical system to perform operations on patients. Similar to minimally invasive surgery, it can be done solely or it can be performed alongside traditional open surgical procedure as well depending on the situation at hand. The Da Vinci system is the most used robotic system over the world. It consists of three components - the surgeon’s console, a patient cart, and the vision cart. All of these components work together to allow the surgeon to view what is happening and then mimics the moments to guide the instruments.
The surgeon’s console is the place where the surgeon sits. This is the area where he sees what is happening and has master control of how the instruments need to move. He can view high-definition real-time 3D images at the console. The patient cart is kept next to the patient’s bed where he is being operated on. The patient cart holds the camera and the instruments that are required for the surgery. The vision cart is the third component that is in charge of enabling the communication to take place seamlessly between all the components. The components of different surgical systems may vary depending on the particular system.
Robotic Surgery history dates back to the 1980s. In 1985, PUMA 560, was the first robotic surgical system that was used for the stereotaxic operation. Then, in 1988, PROBOT was used to perform transurethral prostate surgery. In 1992, ROBODOC was developed for femur cavity preparation. In the 1990s, when laparoscopic surgery started, minimally invasive surgery was introduced. Three systems were created by this time; Da Vinci surgical system, Zeus and AESOP Robotic Surgical systems. Da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. and the AESOP and Zeus systems were developed by Computer Motion.
Computer Motion was acquired by Intuitive Surgical Inc. Within a few years, Zeus was discontinued. Today, the Da Vinci surgical system is the most used across the globe. There are presently four models of Da Vinci robotic surgical systems that are available; Da Vinci Si, Da Vinci X, Da Vinci Xi, and Da Vinci SP. These are designed for different types of robotic surgeries.
Robotic Surgery is excellent for complex procedures that require a high amount of precision. Sometimes, highly complex surgeries are not possible in the traditional way. In such cases, Robotic Surgery might be the only option because it provides the flexibility that is required for the surgery to be completed. Robotic Surgery enables surgeons to thoroughly examine the area that is being operated on. This gives a clearer view to the surgeons which is highly beneficial for them to precisely conduct the operation because some things are not clear with the naked eye. Moreover, it gives more control over what is being done.
The advantages of Robotic Surgery are present for surgeons and patients. For the surgeon, it allows the surgery to be done with precision that was not possible before. This is why Robotic Surgery is great for delicate surgeries as well. During a normal surgery, the doctor is supposed to stand for hours performing the surgery on the patient. When robotic-assisted surgery is done, this is not the case. Hence, surgeon fatigue is minimised during Robotic Surgery as they can sit comfortably and use their hands to guide the robot to replicate their movements to perform the surgery.
In certain critical locations, Robotic Surgery is better because the robotic arms can reach places that are difficult for the surgeon’s hands to reach. This makes it a highly effective method for performing surgery in hard-to-reach areas.
There are many advantages of Robotic Surgery for patients. Robotic Surgery means faster recovery time which means they can get back to work much faster as compared to when they have surgery with traditional methods. The risk of infection is much lesser in Robotic Surgery and it is comparatively less painful. Since the surgery is minimally invasive, there is less damage and the scars are smaller.
Robotic prostate surgery makes use of smaller incisions to get the job done and this leads to much faster recovery time for patients. In conventional open surgery, a large incision is made in the abdomen of the patient. Through this, the surgery is performed while ensuring that the blood vessels and nerves are not damaged in the process. Robotic prostate surgery gives a more promising result since the chances of damage to delicate areas are less in this case. Moreover, surgery with a robotic surgical system is more precise.
Robotic kidney surgery might be required when one kidney or a part of a kidney needs to be removed. In traditional open surgery, a large incision, up to eight inches, might be required in order for the surgery to be performed. However, when Robotic Surgery is performed, the size of the incisions is much smaller and it is a minimally invasive procedure. Robotic kidney surgery for kidney conditions allows faster time for the body to heal and patients can resume daily activities in a comparatively short span of time.
Robotic gynaecological surgery means less pain after surgery and lesser blood loss. In traditional surgery, there is significant pain involved in any gynaecological surgery and there is usually physical trauma connected to the surgery as well. Moreover, large incisions are made in open surgery and this means longer recovery process. With Robotic Surgery, the incisions are much smaller and the recovery times are fewer which is a favourable situation compared to open surgery.
Robotic gallbladder surgery includes cholecystectomy which means removing the gallbladder. With the help of robotic surgical systems, surgeons can now perform the surgery with a single incision. This means fewer scars and the healing time is much lesser because of the lesser loss of blood compared to open surgery. Gallbladder surgery with robotic surgical systems is more beneficial to the patient as they can return to work much faster than if they had conventional open surgery.
Robotic colorectal surgery might be required in the case when a patient requires colectomy or has other conditions such as a benign tumour. Using robotic surgical systems, surgeons can better perform colon surgeries that were deemed impossible in the past. Smaller incisions and other benefits ensure that the nerves are not damaged when the surgery is being performed. In addition, tissue cutting is made a lot easier with robotic surgical systems since the view is much better and the precision is top-notch.
There are many conditions that have had success with Robotic Surgery. The following are types of surgeries that have been successfully performed with the help of robotic surgical systems.
There are numerous advantages of robotic surgery such as:
There are some risks associated with Robotic Surgery and one of them might be a small infection. As with any surgery, there might be bleeding and the patient might experience breathing problems as a result of the surgery. The risks associated with Robotic Surgery are similar to open surgery although the risks are considerable lesser.
Usually, most people are ideal candidates for robotic surgeries. However, eligibility depends on the particular individual and the treatment that they require. Since Robotic Surgery is being used now more than ever, there are certain people that it may not be right for depending on their individual case. You and your doctor need to discuss in detail whether the Robotic Surgery is right for you or not. Your doctor is the one who will ultimately decide whether you are a good candidate for Robotic Surgery or not as he will know about your medical history too.
For instance, in the case of robotic-assisted mitral valve repair, the patient needs to be in good overall health. The patient should not have any type of calcium deposits on the leaflets of the valve and the patient should not have peripheral artery disease. The patient should not have any big coronary artery blockages if he wants to have Robotic Surgery. In addition, the patient should not suffer from any type of lung disease. For some health problems, there are many conditions that need to be met for you to be eligible for Robotic Surgery.
Robotic Surgery and its safety depends on the surgeon who is performing it. People confuse the robotic surgical system by assuming that it is a robot that does the actual decision-making. But that is not the case. It is the surgeon, every single time. Robotic Surgery is safe when the surgeon has been given proper training to control the robotic surgical system and he is given information about how to use it thoroughly.
Robotic Surgery process consists of the robotic surgical system and the surgeon or surgeons who are involved in the operation. The surgeon is the one who makes the decision and guides the robot surgical system to perform the surgery. The steps of what happens during the Robotic Surgery can vary according to the system in use and the operation specifics. However, the following provides a general outline of what happens during Robotic Surgery.
Your surgeon first makes incisions in your body. These incisions are usually one centimetre or two centimetres long depending on the surgical site and why the surgery is being done. Sometimes there might not be a requirement for skin incisions to be done.
Depending on the robotic surgical system being used, the arms contain different instruments that are required during the surgery. One of the arms contains a magnifying camera which provides high-resolution images to the surgeon.
Your surgeon is at the console the whole time and through the console, s/he has full control of what happens during the surgery as he controls the robotic surgical system. The way your surgeon’s hand moves is translated into how the robotic surgical system moves.
In newer robotic surgical systems, the surgeon has the freedom to scale the movements. That is, s/he can set the scale to two-to-one scale in which the robotic system’s arm will move two inches for every one inch of movement of the surgeon’s hand. This provides more flexibility.
The console provides precise and magnified images. This enables the surgeon to understand the entire area and get a clear view in real-time. Real-time 3D images are shown to the surgeon throughout so that s/he has a perfect view of the area that is being operated on.
The robotic surgical system provides minimal fatigue to the surgeon which is why complex surgeries can be done easily with this method. The surgeon has master control over the camera and every arm of the robotic surgical system.
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