A urinary tract infection denotes infection and microbial colonization of any part of the urinary tract including kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra. Most infections commonly involve the lower urinary tract i.e. the bladder and the urethra. Depending on the site involved there are different terminologies commonly used including :
Cystitis: infection limited to the urinary bladder. It usually presents with burning micturition, urinary urgency, frequency, and/or suprapubic pain.
Pyelonephritis: infection involving the kidneys. It is the most dangerous type of UTI and presents with fever with chills or rigors, flank pain, nausea with or without vomiting.
Urethritis: infection involving the urethra. It usually presents with burning pain during urination and a foul-smelling urethral discharge.
Another important terminology in reference to Urinary tract infection is :
Complicated UTI : UTI with an increased chance of a complicated course, that is, all men, pregnant women, patients with structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract, indwelling urinary catheters, renal diseases, and/or other immunocompromised states.
Signs and symptoms:
Risk Factors :
Complications — Patients with acute complicated UTI can also present with bacteremia, sepsis, multiple organ system dysfunctions, shock, and/or acute renal failure, renal corticomedullary abscess, perinephric abscess, emphysematous pyelonephritis, or papillary necrosis which can also be fatal.
Diagnosis: is made by history, physical examination, urine routine and culture sensitivity, Imaging studies including Ultrasound and CT scan
Data in Indian Patients:
A frantic mother brings an 18-month-old with complaints of her child getting up frequently in…