Categories: Neurology

Types of Movement Disorders

“Movement disorders” means a gathering of neurological conditions that cause abnormally increased movements or abnormally decreased movements.

Types of Movement Disorders:

Tremors: Involuntary rhythmic oscillatory movement of limbs or other parts of the body.

Ataxia: This development disorder impacts the part of the brain that controls the co-ordinated movement (cerebellum). Ataxia may cause disorganized or clumsy balance, speech or limb movements, and other symptoms.

Dystonia: This condition causes abnormal sustained contraction of muscles causing the concerned body part to be twisted in various directions.

Chorea: Chorea is characterized by redundant, brief, unpredictable, somewhat rapid, dancing type involuntary movements that include the face, mouth, trunk, and limbs.

Functional Movement Disorder:

This condition may look like any of the movement disorder, however, isn’t because of neurological disease.

Myoclonus: This condition causes rapid jerks of a muscle or a group of muscles.

Some common diseases with predominantly movement disorders:

Parkinson’s disease: This slowly growing, the neurodegenerative disorder causes tremor, stiffness, slow movements (bradykinesia), or imbalance. It might likewise cause other non-movement symptoms.

Parkinsonism: Parkinsonism portrays a group of conditions that has symptoms like those of Parkinson’s disease.

Progressive supranuclear paralysis: This is an uncommon neurological issue that causes issues with walking, balance, and eye movements. It might look like Parkinson’s disease however is a distinct condition.

Huntington’s disease: This is a hereditary, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that causes uncontrolled movements (chorea), hindered cognitive abilities, and mental conditions.

Multiple system atrophy: This neurodegenerative condition causes severe postural blood pressure fluctuations, urinary and sexual disturbances along with movement disorders like imbalance, clumsiness of hands, or slow limb movements.

Restless legs syndrome: This movement disorder causes upsetting, abnormal feelings in the legs while relaxing or lying down, regularly relieved by movement.

Tardive Syndromes: This neurological condition is brought about by long term use of specific drugs used to treat mental conditions (neuroleptic drugs). Tardive syndromes may include twisting movements of the head, the trunk of limb (dystonia), or may cause brief, rapid, dancing type involuntary movements that include the predominantly the face, tongue, or rest of the body.

Tourette disorder: This is a neurological condition that starts among youth in the teenage years and is related to repetitive stereotypic movements (motor tics) and vocal sounds (vocal tics).

Wilson’s Disease: This is an uncommon inherited issue that causes a buildup of excessive amounts of copper in the body, causing predominantly neurological and liver disorders.

Causes of Movement Disorders:

Movement disorders happen because of the dysfunction of various parts of the brain – basal ganglia being one of the most commonly implicated parts. The basal ganglia are comprised of a bunch of nerve cells (neurons) that impart and get an electrical signal and are responsible for involuntary movements. The following can result in movement disorders –

  • Degenerative disorders
  • Genetic disorders
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Stroke
  • Neuroinfections
  • Environmental toxins
  • Medications

Diagnosis of Movement Disorders:

The diagnosis of movement disorders includes taking a family history and a past record of symptoms and conducting a physical assessment (including neurological assessment) and different diagnostic tests (e.g., blood tests, imaging tests).

Imaging tests, including CT scan, MRI, and PET scan, might be used to recognize the cause of disease and the extent of damage to the brain.

Treatment of Movement Disorders:

There are two aspects of treatment – a) treatment of the symptoms b) treatment of the underlying cause. Your doctors may recommend to include:

  • Medications
  • Physical or occupational treatment to help keep up or reestablish your capacity to control your movements
  • Botulinum toxin injections for stiff muscles.
  • Deep brain stimulation, a surgical treatment alternative that uses an implant to stimulate the areas of your brain that controls movement.

As no two movement disorders are the same, it is recommended to consult your doctor for a customized treatment plan based on your requirements.

Dr. Kuldeep Shetty, Consultant – Neurology, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bommasandra

Narayana Health

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