Categories: Neurology

Types of Brain Stroke: All You Need to Know

Brain strokes are a result of either blood clot formation in the brain that occurs when the blood supply to a certain part of the brain stops or rupture of blood vessels in or around the brain causing brain hemorrhage.  This leads to the damage of the tissues of the brain in that particular part leading to several physical imbalances and disabilities. Therefore, it’s very important that you stay informed about this ailment and seek proper medical help in case of this mishap. Here, we will be discussing the various types of brain strokes and how they can affect you.

Types of Stroke:

 

Ischemic Stroke

The most common type of brain stroke is ischemic stroke or brain ischemia that accounts for almost 87% of all the stroke attacks. It’s caused due to blood clot formation in the brain when the blood supply is hindered and brain tissues of a particular area in the brain get damaged. The primary cause of ischemic stroke is due to fatty acid deposits in the lining of the blood vessel walls known as atherosclerosis. There are generally two types of deposits:

  • Cerebral thrombosis, meaning the blockage of essential nutrients flow in the bloodstream, developing at the fatty plaque within the blood vessels.
  • Cerebral embolism or blood clot formation that forms in the circulatory system in the heart and large arteries near the upper portion of your chest, and neck.

The ischemic stroke symptoms are blurry vision, physical imbalance, inability to consume food, etc.

 

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Almost 13 percent of all stroke cases are hemorrhagic stroke. The primary cause of this kind of stroke is due to weakened vessels that rupture leading to increased bleeding surrounding the brain. The blood then accumulates and gets compressed leading to severe tissue damage in the brain. There are two types of major hemorrhagic stroke: 

  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Most hemorrhage cases are caused due to arteriovenous malformation, which is an abnormal formation of blood vessels leading to rupture and causes increased bleeding near the brain area. 

It is important to know some other related terms often used for similar disease. These are as follows.

 

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

A transient ischemic attack or TIA, also known as TIA ministroke, is a condition where there is a temporary blockage of blood flow to the brain. It’s often ignored as it does not cause any permanent damage though it’s highly not advisable to do so. Most of the common initial symptoms of blood clot formation near the brain indicate a TIA attack and should be diagnosed and treated at the earliest. TIAs give the patient and the doctor the best opportunity for treatment and disease prevention, so this should not be missed.

 

Cryptogenic Stroke

The cryptogenic stroke is also known as the stroke of unknown causes as its trigger factors are hard to determine. Most of the cases of cryptogenic stroke or CS are due to the same cause as of that of other types of stroke, i.e. blood clot formation in the brain. Determining the core cause of a cryptogenic stroke attack in the brain involves an acute diagnosis of the patient and should be done adequately to steer away from any health risk.

 

Silent Cerebral Infarction or Silent Brain Stroke

This is also caused due to any blood clot formation blocking the flow of blood to the brain. You could have a silent stroke and not even be aware of it. It has a high-risk factor and may essentially lead to further brain damage. The common causes of silent brain stroke are:

  • Atrial fibrillation that results in irregular heartbeat amongst patients aged above 65 years.
  • Hypertension, elevated levels of blood homocysteine, and high systolic levels of blood pressure are some of the common causes of silent cerebral infarction or SCI. It’s very important that these conditions are diagnosed early in order to prevent any further risk of damage to the brain.

There are various types of brain strokes, and almost all of them require proper medical attention and care for the patient to survive. We cannot emphasize more on how important it is for a brain stroke patient to seek medical help at the earliest. The ischemic attack is among the most common forms of brain strokes leading to disabilities like partial paralysis, blackened vision and even death in some cases. The TIA, being the most minor also requires proper medical care and attention in order to resist a future brain stroke. Do get in touch with us to know more!

Dr. Prashant K. Singh | Consultant – Interventional Neurology | Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, Jaipur

Narayana Health

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