The knee is a complex hinge joint connecting the thigh bone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia) and the kneecap (patella). It plays a pivotal role in mobility, supporting body weight, and facilitating movements such as walking, running, and bending. Knee replacement becomes necessary when the knee joint is severely damaged or degenerated due to various causes, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, or injury. This damage results in excruciating pain, limited mobility, and a decreased quality of life. During knee replacement surgery, the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial implant, alleviating pain, restoring function, and enhancing the patient’s overall quality of life.
There are several types of knee replacement surgeries, such as total knee replacement, partial knee replacement, minimally invasive knee replacement and robotic knee replacement surgeries. Robotic knee replacement, also known as robot-assisted knee replacement, is an advanced surgical technique that combines the expertise of a skilled surgeon with robotic technology to enhance the precision and accuracy of knee replacement surgery. Robotic knee replacement reduces pain, makes recovery faster, and improves implant longevity. It is particularly beneficial for complex cases and patients seeking a more precise and customised approach to knee replacement surgery.
Causes and Symptoms of Knee Replacement
Mentioned below are a few causes and symptoms that lead to doctors performing a knee replacement surgery:
- Pain due to arthritis
- Issues in walking, climbing stairs, or sitting and standing immediately
- Pain in knees and legs
- Issues while walking, sitting, or standing
- Persistent fever and chills
- Drainage from the knee wound site
- Tenderness, redness, and pain at the knee wound
Types of Knee Replacement Surgery
- Total Knee Replacement- A total knee replacement involves the replacement of a patella with a plastic dome. The dome is smooth to avoid any pain during knee movement.
- Unicompartmental Partial Knee Replacement– A partial knee replacement is required if knee pain is observed in only one side of the knee. The surgery doesn’t involve the whole knee and is done only on the painful side. The surgery allows the patient to heal quickly compared to a total knee replacement surgery.
- Kneecap Replacement– The surgery involves replacing the under kneecap if it is affected due to any form of arthritis. The surgery helps eliminate pain and allows one to move the injured knee comfortably and perform different routine functions easily.
- Complex Knee Replacement– This is a surgical procedure when a knee replacement surgery is performed multiple times on the same knee. The surgery is done in case of significant bone loss or deformity due to arthritis.
- Robotic Knee Replacement- A robotic procedure used for knee replacement is known as robotic knee replacement surgery. The surgery helps a surgeon repair the damaged tissues and cartilage without causing any damage to the nearby tissues. The surgery helps in quick and easy recovery compared to an open surgery. The surgery is similar to traditional open surgery with the difference that robotic arms perform in this form. In contrast, the surgeon performs the surgery in a traditional method. Surgery is recommended for people with deformities in the femur after the surgery, issues in the knee due to previous surgery, or complex degeneration.
How does a robotic knee replacement surgery work?
The Mako surgery helps total or partial replacement of the damaged knee tissues. The initial step of the procedure involves getting a CAT scan of the patient. It helps get a 3D image of the surgical site that helps perform the surgery with greater accuracy and precision. Then, the images are used by the advanced robotic machine to plan the surgery as per the patient’s condition. Minimal details such as making the right size of incision for insertion of the laparoscopic tube, picking the ideal implant size, and positioning it are all done by the surgical system used for the surgery. The machine lays out a detailed plan to perform the surgery. The Mako system positions the arms of the machine according to the plan laid out for the surgery, where the surgeon holds the console and performs the steps required to complete the surgery.
Step-By-Step Process of Robotic Knee Replacement Surgery
- Preoperative Activities: A knee CT scan creates a 3D model for precise preoperative planning.
- Getting Patient Ready for the Surgery: The patient is positioned on the operating table, and the surgical area is cleaned and sterilised.
- Robotic System Setup: The robotic system is set up, and specialised instruments are attached to the robotic arms.
- Making Incisions: Small incisions (portals) are made to access the knee joint. These are typically smaller than in traditional surgery.
- Entering Details: Based on the preoperative CT scan, the robotic system registers the patient’s anatomy.
- Real-time Imaging: The surgeon uses real-time 3D imaging to guide the robotic arm during the procedure.
- Bone Preparation: The damaged bone and tissue are removed with precision, ensuring minimal disruption to healthy structures.
- Implant Placement: The robotic system assists the surgeon in accurately positioning the artificial knee components, such as the femoral and tibial implants.
- Closure: Once the components are securely placed, the incisions are closed with sutures or staples.
- Recovery: The patient is monitored in the recovery room before being transferred to a post-operative area. Physical therapy begins to aid in rehabilitation.
When to Consult a Doctor
You can also get in touch with the expert doctors at Narayana Healthcare based in your city to get immediate attention and medical support during a sudden health concern.
Robotic knee replacement surgery is a form of surgery with great precision for faster patient recovery. The surgery is highly practised by surgeons today for its multiple advantages and high success rate. The surgery is also hassle-free compared to a traditional surgery with big incisions and more blood loss.
Q. What are the types of knee replacement surgeries?
A. Total knee replacement, Unicompartmental partial knee replacement, Kneecap replacement, and Complex knee replacement are some knee replacement surgery forms.
Q. What are the advantages of robotic knee replacement surgery?
A. Quicker recovery, fewer hospital stays, fewer scars, and many such benefits are the plus points of a robotic knee replacement surgery.
Q. When is knee replacement surgery required?
A. Knee replacement becomes necessary when the knee joint is severely damaged or degenerated due to various causes, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, or injury.