Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a set of emotions and physical discomfort a female feels before the start of the menstrual cycle. The syndrome is accompanied by physical and mental distress. For example, a female experiencing premenstrual syndrome might face cramps in the stomach, pain in the hands and legs, tiredness, mood swings, and various similar issues.
Causes of Premenstrual Syndrome
As of now, researchers are unable to identify the root causes of PMS. Hence, mentioned below are some of the possible reasons that can help one identify premenstrual syndrome:
- Depression– Depression is one of the prime causes of premenstrual syndrome. A female with depression and anxiety issues faces mental and physical problems. A female with anxiety and depression might feel stress, inability to focus on daily activities and mood swings.
- Chemical Changes in Brain- Serotonin handles all the mood functioning of the brain. Being sad, happy, anxious, or excited affects the serotonin level in the human body. Changes in the level of serotonin can make a female feel low and experience premenstrual syndrome. In addition, the chemical change may make a female feel low on energy and unable to concentrate on essential things. Hence, changes in serotonin levels are also one of the root causes of PMS.
- Changes in Hormones– Changes in hormones not only bring about a physical change in a female but also cause mental issues. Premenstrual syndrome is one such cognitive change in the case of hormonal changes in a female. Changes are in the form of mood swings, depression, low energy, poor concentration, inability to sleep soundly, and other similar traits.
Signs and Symptoms of PMS
Primary signs and symptoms of PMS include pain due to cramps, pain in the hands and legs, mood swings, lack of sleep, and many similar issues. Mentioned below are a few signs or risk factors of PMS that can help to identify the syndrome quickly:
- Muscle and Joint Pain– A female might experience increased prostaglandins leading to muscle and joint pain. It is one of the common symptoms of PMS. As a result, a female might feel low energy and be unable to perform tedious physical activity. Pain in joints and muscles also prevents a female from doing physical work efficiently.
- Headache– Headache is one of the common signs of PMS. A female feeling irritated, accompanied by mood swings, might soon be experiencing premenstrual syndrome. All these health conditions and mental stress can lead to chronic headaches and an inability to focus.
- Acne– A female’s progesterone and estrogen levels drop before the beginning of her period. It can lead to sudden release of excess sebum, clogging the pores. Hence, females also experience acne as premenstrual syndrome. The situation is also known as ‘period acne’. It is also one of the primary symptoms of PMS.
- Weight Gain– Weight gain is among the queue of another sign of PMS due to hormonal fluctuations. A female might gain a few kilograms during periods due to multiple reasons. But soon, these kgs shred once the period begins. Skipping workouts due to period cramps, overeating, sugar cravings, and water retention are some of the primary reasons that can lead to weight gain.
- Breast Swelling– Breast swelling and tenderness are also one of the signs of PMS. It can occur due to hormonal fluctuations. The issue is usually observed in females who have recently given birth. A female might experience breast tenderness or heaviness.
Emotional Signs of PMS
A female might also experience emotional signs of PMS, such as:
- Mood swings
- Depression and anxiety
- Low energy
- Poor concentration
- Frequent urges to cry
- Untimely food cravings
- Treatment Options for PMS
Premenstrual syndrome can be easily tackled with the help of fundamental lifestyle changes. But, in chronic situations, a female can also be prescribed some medication. Mentioned below are some basic treatment options for PMS:
- Healthy Food Options– During periods, females urge to eat fried and sugary foods. But, these can work on the contrary and may worsen premenstrual syndrome symptoms. So, instead, a female should consume healthy food such as home-cooked, green vegetables, and dairy products. One should also lower the salt intake to stay healthy and avoid water retention.
- Physical Activity– Engaging in any form of physical activity is one of the best and most natural treatment options for PMS. One can do a brisk walk of at least 30 minutes, play a sport, or do any aerobic activity. It also helps to eliminate premenstrual syndrome symptoms such as stress and depression.
Medications for PMS
Listed below are some of the usually prescribed medications for PMS by doctors:
- Hormonal contraceptives
- Vitamin supplements
When to Consult a Doctor
You can also get in touch with the expert Gynecology doctors at Narayana Healthcare based in your city to get immediate attention and medical support during injuries, health disorders or any other health concern.
Premenstrual syndrome is not a disease that a female should be afraid of. The body shows health signs and symptoms to indicate nearing periods. It can affect a female physically as well as mentally. Proper medications for PMS can help lower these symptoms and perform daily routine functions seamlessly.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q. What is PMS?
A. Premenstrual syndrome, also known as PMS, is a set of physical and emotional changes experienced by a female near the nearing of her period. These symptoms can be cured with the help of proper medications and treatment in case of chronic situations.
Q. What are the symptoms of PMS?
A. Pain in hands and legs, body cramps, mood swings, sugar cravings, feeling bloated, and depression are some of the common symptoms of PMS.
Q. What causes PMS?
A. Researchers have still not found the causes of PMS. But situations such as chemical imbalances in the brain, depression, stress, and hormonal fluctuations are some causes of PMS.
Q. How is PMS treated?
A. Some of the fundamental lifestyle changes can act as treatment options for PMS. For example, eating healthy and home-cooked food, including green vegetables in the diet, and physical activity of at least 30 minutes are some options that can help lower premenstrual syndrome symptoms.
Q. Can lifestyle changes help with PMS symptoms?
A. Simple changes such as replacing junk food with healthy food items, including the physical activity of a minimum of 30 minutes, and using leisure time for meditation are some of the small yet effective changes that can help to deal with abrupt premenstrual syndrome changes.