Categories: Stroke

Hypertensive Intracranial Haemorrhage

Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a reason for the 15% cases of stroke with a low mortality rate. The most common reason for its cause is diverse pathology. It shows all the major hemogenic symptoms like trauma, haemorrhagic conversion of ischemic infarction, hypertension, vasculitis, and venous sinus thrombosis. People also face some of the common nerve symptoms like cerebral amyloid antipathy, cerebral aneurysms, and cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

Hypertensive Intracranial Haemorrhage AKA Brain Haemorrhage is a type of stroke, which is caused by the brain’s artery bursts and the blood spreads nearby areas, and bleeding starts from surrounding tissues. This bleeding permanently damages brain cells. The word “Hem” has been originated from the Greek language. Haemorrhage means “blood bursting forth”, intracranial haemorrhages, brain haemorrhages, cerebral haemorrhages, intracerebral haemorrhages all are same.

Sometimes brain tissues got swelled due to blood from irritation due to trauma. This condition is known as cerebral oedema. The blood collects and makes a mass called a hematoma. This condition increases the pressure on nearby tissues and reduces essential blood flow and permanently damage brain cells.

Causes of Hypertensive Intracranial Haemorrhage:

There are several risk factors and causes of ICH. The most common are:

  • Head Trauma: Brain injury is the most common reason for ICH. It can be due to due to accidents with high speed/force.
  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension: If there is not any proper treatment to handle the condition of high blood pressure, then it becomes chronic over a long period of time. The blood vessel wall gets weak due to untreated high blood pressure.
  • Aneurysm: It is a weakness of a swollen blood vessel wall that can be burst and bleed into the brain and cause of stroke.
  • Blood Vessel Abnormalities (Arteriovenous malformations): Arteriovenous malformations are a weakness of vessels in and around of brain. It presents since birth but develops later in life.
  • Amyloid Angiopathy: This abnormality of blood vessel walls occurs with age or due to high blood pressure. Due to amyloid angiopathy, small parts of the blood vessel bleed before a haemorrhage.
  • Blood and Bleeding Disorder: Blood platelet count got decreased due to blood disorders such as haemophilia and sickle cell anaemia.
  • Liver Disease
  • Brain Tumor

The symptoms of Hypertensive Intracranial Haemorrhage:

A symptom of hypertensive intracranial haemorrhage may develop suddenly and it can vary. Symptoms depend on the location of the bleeding and the amount of tissue affected in the brain. Few of them are as follows:

  • Sudden severe headache
  • Seizures without any previous history
  • Weakness in the arm and/or leg
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Decreased alertness and dullness
  • Vision change
  • Numbness
  • Difficulty in speaking and understanding
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Difficulty in reading and/or writing
  • Decreased fine motor skill
  • Coordination loss
  • Loss of balance
  • Unable to taste properly

Prevention from Hypertensive Intracranial Haemorrhage:

There are specific risks factors of Hypertensive Intracranial Haemorrhage that can minimize the risk are as follows:

  • Do not smoke.
  • High blood pressure is a reason of cerebral haemorrhage in 80% cases. High blood pressure should be controlled by exercise, diet, and medication.
  • If you have any abnormalities such as aneurysms, then a doctor may suggest corrective surgery. This surgery may help you to prevent future bleeding.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Use safety features while driving a vehicle such as seatbelts and helmets.
  • No to illegal drugs for e.g. Cocaine. Drugs increase the risk of haemorrhage.

Treatment:

According to the symptom of the patient, the doctor determines which part of the brain is affected. A variety of imaging test such as CT Scan/MRI makes a clear picture about haemorrhage. The scan reveals internal bleeding or blood accumulation. For checking swelling in the optical nerve, an eye exam or a neurological exam can be conducted. Treatment of haemorrhage depends upon the location, cause, and extent of bleeding. Surgery may be required for bleeding prevention and alleviate the swelling. Medications include painkillers, corticosteroids, or diuretics to reduce swelling, and anticonvulsants to control seizures.

Some patient of haemorrhage completely gets recovered, but it depends on the size of the haemorrhage and the amount of swelling. Possible complications are stroke, loss of brain function, death, etc.

Dr. Manaranjan Jena, Consultant Neuro Surgeon , Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, Barasat

Narayana Health

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