Categories: Cardiology

Hypertension in Young

High blood pressure is also known as hypertension. It generates a high force of the blood pushing on the blood vessels’ walls. In this scenario, the heart has to pump harder and the arteries are under great strain as they have high pressured blood. Due to the unhealthy lifestyle, this problem is spreading in children too. Changes in the lifestyle and incorporating healthy low-fat food in the diet, regular physical activities reduce the risk of hypertension.

Causes:

Mostly there are no specific causes of hypertension. This is called essential hypertension. Some cases are as follows:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Lung Problem
  • Heart problem
  • Obesity
  • Some medicines
  • Genetic conditions
  • Hormonal disorder

Symptoms:

No significant symptoms have been observed for hypertension. But there are few signs of hypertension in severe cases:

  • Headache
  • Blurry Vision
  • Dizziness
  • Nosebleeds
  • Fluttering and racing heartbeat(palpitation)
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Chest Pain
  • Shortness of breath

High Blood Pressure Management Guidelines:

There are few guidelines which should be followed by parents:

  • After the age of >3years, the blood pressure of your kid should be measured every year. This check is essential for those kids who have obesity. Take medicine for increased blood pressure, renal disease, diabetes, a history of aortic arch obstruction, or coarctation.
  • For Blood pressure screening of children, oscillometric devices are used.
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can be done for the children having a history of hypertension from 1 year or with high-risk conditions. It has been validated for pediatrics.
  • Electrocardiography must not be conducted for hypertension patients.
  • Children with hypertension may participate in the sport only after doctor’s recommendation.

Types of Hypertension:

Hypertension has been broadly separated into two parts according to their risk factors:

Primary (Essential) Hypertension:

There is no identified reason for its occurrence. This type of hypertension usually found in the children having age >6. The risk factors are:

  • Obesity and overweight
  • Family history of high blood pressure
  • Type 2 diabetes/high fasting sugar level
  • High cholesterol
  • Eating too much salt
  • Gender-specific: MALE
  • Complexion: Black
  • Being Sedentary
  • Any type of Smoking: active or passive

Secondary Hypertension:

It is commonly found in young children.

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Heart troubles
  • Adrenal disorders
  • Pheochromocytoma, a rare tumour of the adrenal gland
  • Renal Artery Stenosis (Narrowing the artery to the kidney)
  • Sleep disorder, especially obstructive sleep apnea
  • Certain medicines
  • Drugs

Complications:

If the treatment is not provided in the initial stage to the children, then it can be carried further in the future. If the childhood trouble of hypertension continues to adulthood, then the child will at the risk of:

  1. Stroke
  2. Heart Attack
  3. Heart failure
  4. Kidney failure

Treatments:

If blood pressure is high due to some other medical conditions such as kidney disease and lung diseases. After following a regular treatment procedure related to these diseases, the issue of Hypertension will be solved. Doctors should recommend lifestyle changes that should be followed by the patient of hypertension like:

Eat a Healthy Diet:

  • Incorporate more fruits, leafy vegetables, and low-fat dairy in your diet.
  • Take a limited quantity of salt.
  • Avoid caffeine that is commonly found in sodas, tea, coffee, and energy drinks.
  • Say no to Alcohol.

Regular Exercise:

Hypertension patients should try to do exercise daily. But if it is not possible, then try to exercise for 30-60 minutes, at least three times a week. But if the teen having severe hypertension, then he/she should not do weightlifting or power-lifting, bodybuilding, or strength training. It can be pursued once the blood pressure comes down and stable in the normal range, then the doctor certifies for such kind of activities.

Do Not Smoke:

People with hypertension should say a strict “NO” to smoking. And they should live in a smoke-free area.

Dr. Auriom Kar, Consultant – Cardiologist Adult, Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, Barasat

Narayana Health

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