The prostate is like a small walnut-shaped gland present in men that help in the nourishment and transport of sperm. Any irregular outgrowth occurring in the prostate is known as Prostate cancer. It is most commonly seen in men as females don’t have a prostate gland. The cancerous cell grows slowly and then causes a series of harm in men. Sometimes of cancer remain dormant from the immunology while some grow and become more aggressive. Aggressive prostate cancer spread very quickly in the body. Prostate cancer begins due to the mutation of some cells in the prostate. This abnormal cell divides more rapidly and causes tumours of the prostate. This cancerous cell also has chances to share and spread around other regions and infect them.
If prostate cancer detected in the beginning, then it can be easily treated, but if discovered after a long, then the treatment methods become tougher to handle.
Causes of Prostate Cancer:
Till now, the actual reason for prostate cancer is not apparent. But some of the common reasons that are responsible for prostate cancer are followed:
- Age: The risk of prostate cancer increased with age. It may be due to some mutations of cells concerning generation.
- Race: It is also an essential factor. Various researches confirm that black men have a higher risk of suffering from prostate cancer than do men of other races in comparison to white.
- Family history: It is a genetic cause. If your father or grandfather has faced prostate cancer, then you also have some chances of being suffered as the cells inside your body are somatic type.
- Obesity: Prostate cancer is more common in fat people. It may be due to some cholesteric or fats deposition that obstructs physiological changes to cause mutation in the prostate cells.
- Smoking: The risk of all cancer, including prostate cancer, increases with smoking. As all know, it very clearly is aware if you don’t want to face it.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:
Prostate cancer has no specific signs and symptoms, but the patients face the following symptoms:
- Trouble while urinating
- A decrease in the flow of urination
- Increase in frequency and nocturia
- The feeling of discomfort in the pelvic region
- Erectile dysfunction
- burning sensation while urinating
- Blood in the urine (Haematuria)
- Painful ejaculation
- Loss of weight and appetite
- Pain in back and hips.
Management of Prostate Cancer:
- Diagnosis: Screening – Serum PSA Test and DRE are preferred.
Prostate biopsy: This treatment uses ultrasound waves to find the cause. Using antibiotics after biopsy also prevents infection.
- Active Surveillance: It can monitor the growth of cancer cells with the help of regular biopsies and serum PSA monitoring. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is used with active Surveillance to find out the rate of dividing cells.
- Surgery: Surgery is preferred and done at the initial stage to reduce the symptoms and provide a definitive cure. But has many complications.
- Hormonal and Chemotherapy: In an advanced stage and inoperable cases it is the most preferred and desirable
- Localized Therapy: It includes therapies like Radiation Therapy, Cryotherapy, Focal Therapy, and Immunotherapy, which uses localization techniques for the treatment of prostate cancer.
- Take home notes
In high-risk cases, age more than 55, family history of prostate cancer, obese and smokers or person having LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) should consult a urologist and should undergo prostate screening procedures like PSA and DRE.
Remember, early detection has a higher cancer-free rate, and a complete cure for cancer is possible.
Dr. Chandra Sekhar Patro, Consultant – Urology | Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, Barasat