Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye.
Some of them are:
- Anterior Segment Surgery
- Retinal Ophthalmology - emphasis on LASER treatment of the retina and actual retinal surgery
- Cataracts - not usually considered a subspecialty per se, since most general ophthalmologists perform cataract surgery
- Cornea, Ocular Surface and External Disease
- Medical Retina deals with treatment of retinal problems through non-surgical means
- Ocular Oncology
- Oculoplastics & Orbit Surgery
- Ophthalmic Pathology
- Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus (mis-alignment of the eyes)
- Refractive Surgery
- Vitreo-retinal Surgery deals with surgical management of retinal and posterior segment diseases and disorders
- Medical Retina and Vitreo-retinal Surgery sometimes together called posterior segment subspecialisation.